Ute SCHOLZ / Silvia MÜLLER / Richard THOMA
(AS-Archäologie Service, Krems, Austria)
AS-Archäologie Service carried out an excavation in Schwechat, Lower Austria in 2010.
Two barracks constructions of the ancient Roman military camp for cavalry troops “Ala Nova” were almost fully excavated. Three Roman construction phases were detected, beginning with wooden buildings from the first century AD. In the second phase (2nd, 3rd century AD.) a castle was built there with stone basement in opus spicatum. Accommodation contains the so-called “head building”, soldiers’ rooms and aside located stable rooms with dumping pits for horse urine. The building was completed with a wooden porticus. In the third phase (3rd, 4th century AD.) the camp was rebuilt, shown by adobe floors and wooden constructions. Some rooms were added to the remaining walls in the 4th and 5th centuries AD, other rooms with different orientation were additionally built. At least two buildings were erected above the Roman constructions in the 6th and 7th centuries. This is the first proof of Avar colonization inside of a roman camp in Austria. From then, brisk settlement could not be proved until the 17th century AD.
Many findings of the respective eras were brought out, among three Roman crossbow fibulae, a plate fibula, several coins, three Roman lanceheads, fittings of horse harnesses, thereof one with animal depiction, a bone dice and a brick with a stamp of the 10th legion on it. From the Avar era came the usual pottery and a buckle which was used as a fibula in the late Roman era, among tools made of animal bones.
Roman military camp, Schwechat