(Centr of Kyiv Archaeology, Inst. of Archaelogy of the NAS, Ukraine)
Traditional large-scale excavations in the Upper Town the 1970 and 2010 were supplemented with regular excavations the Podil (Lower Town). Excavations carried out along the construction of the second subway line revealed the remnants of a large urban settlement, which arose here in the late ninth century and came to occupy approximately 150 hectares within 30 years. The town began to form along the river, above the general level of the river valley. The terrace stretched between the precipitous slopes of the waterfront and the course of the deep Dnieper’s tributary, the Pochaina River, which served as a convenient harbour.
II. The cultural layer.
The cultural layer showed that besides human activity other factors also had a great influence on its formation. Layers of pure river sand, clay, and loess formed approximately half its thickness. All this pointed to the fact that the population inhabiting Podil had often been forced to leave the area. The intervals were short-term, but they changed the situation significantly. Joint efforts of archaeologists end geology resulted in putting together the stratigraphic section of the cultural layer Podil along more than 2000 m. of the subway line.
III. The chronology.
The generalization of the stratigraphic data and correlation with dendro-dates opened a perspective on establishing chronology of all the horizontal strata of the cultural layer. The earliest stratum, (11,5-12-5 m), is dated from the 880s to the 920s. The next one, deposited one meter above, covered the period up to the beginning of the eleventh century. The third stratum of the layer, 8 m. in depth at the top, is dated to the 1040s. On the level of the fourth stratum (7-7,8 meters) buildings were built in the mid-eleventh century and they fell into decay in the early twelfth century (2,5-3 m.).
Keywords: Podil, stratigraphic, dendro-dates