(University of Zielona Gora, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Zielona Gora, Poland)

Keywords: religious refugees,Thirty Years’ War,colonization,mountain settlement,heritage in the forests

The settling movement in the high parts of the northern side of the Karkonosze was caused by the Thirty Years’ War in the 17th century and lasted until the early 1950s. The basic difficulty is the lack of sources for various chronological periods within the almost 400-year history of mountain settlement. The materials preserved in the State Archives cover only two decades of the 2nd half of the 19th century, the years 1900-1945 and much less information from the first half of the 19th century. Non-invasive archaeological research was carried out at the Forstlangwasser settlement and the LIDAR data was interpreted and checked in the field for other locations of settlement facilities: Baudenbusch, Baudenwinkel, Baudengärten, Finkelbauden, Niederstädtel and Oberstädtel. The consent for archaeological research was issued by the land owner reluctantly (Lasy Państwowe). The postulate of the lack of interference (archaeological exploration) in the forest environment has been preserved. The research attention was focused on the reconstruction of facts from settlers’ life on the basis of modest archival data. The fate of the settlers living in the high-lying mountain valleys and on the slopes of the Karkonosze ridge were certainly dependent on their strength on demanding positions in strengthening Protestantism. Extremely determined for over 350 years, they have been effective advocates of the new faith, f.e. Hans Ulrich Schaffgotsch. The potential of archaeological discoveries goes far beyond the capabilities of historical data. In 1950, the Forstlangwasser was liquidated by the state authorities due to the search for uranium by the Russians and the resettlement action initiated in connection with it. After the liquidation of the mine in the years 1953-1955, all the facilities, buildings, farm buildings were devastated and construction residues of the houses were looted by local farmers.

Relevance for the conference: 400 years anniversary of the commencement of the Thirty Years’ War and great religious migrations
Relevance for the session: Problems of studying monuments destroyed by local authorities and people in the past
Innovation: Modest historical and archaeological research on mountain settlements in the Giant Mountains
• Zarys Dziejów osad górskich dawnej gminy Budziska (Gebirgsbauden) w Karkonoszach- Bogdan Bobowski – Wrocław 2017