Museen der Stadt Wien – Stadtarchäologie

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Machen Plätze Sinn? “Raum und Öffentlichkeit” am Beispiel des mittelalterlichen Zürich

Dölf WILD (Stadtarchäologie Zürich, Switzerland)   Outline: Ein archäologischer Befund allein sagt für sich genommen nicht viel aus. Nur die Hinzunahme weiterer Quellen hilft das Vorgefundene sicherer zu interpretieren. Bei Plätzen stellt sich die Frage, zu was sie gedient haben, lässt sich sagen, was wann dort stattgefunden hat und wer das organisierte? In Zürich standen sich im 13./14. Jahrhundert die Äbtissin des Fraumünsters als nominelle Stadtherrin und der Rat der Bürgerschaft konkurrenzierend um die Macht gegenüber. Der Münsterhof, der einzige planmässig angelegte Platz der Stadt steht in interessanter Art und Weise im Spannungsfeld dieser Auseinandersetzung. Es geht hier um die Frage, wo wurden welche politischen Rituale im Gefüge der Stadt abgehalten. Abstract: Zürich ist mit seiner bis in keltisch-römische Zeit zurückreichenden Geschichte keine Grün-dungsstadt mit geplanter, rationaler Baustruktur. Ein Spiegel davon sind die vier grösseren Plätze der Stadt, Münsterhof, Lindenhof, Rathausbrücke und Stüssihofstatt mit ihrer unter-schiedlichen Genese und historisch-archäologischen Fragestellung. Zuerst werden hier kurz Fragen zum „Sinn“ von Plätzen allgemein aufgeworfen. Gibt es funk-tional zwingende Gründe auf für die Anlage von Plätzen? Es wird die These aufgestellt, dass ihr Nutzen am ehesten auf der symbolischen Ebene der Kommunikation von Repräsentation und Herrschaft zu suchen ist. Man muss keine Plätze schaffen, man kann es, wenn man will. Im Folgenden wird dies am Beispiel Zürichs diskutiert. Der Münsterhof ist Zürichs einziger urbaner Platz, der im Mittelalter als solcher angelegt worden ist. Um 1300 wurde dafür vor dem Fraumünster, einer wichtigen Zürcher Kirche, ein Friedhof, eine Kapelle und eine Anzahl Häuser beseitigt. Doch wie ist dieser archäologische Befund zu deuten? Die bisherige Erklärung basierte auf der Grundannahme einer linearen historischen Entwicklung, welche durch das Bild des Befundes zusätzlich gestützt zu werden scheint. Hier werden nun diese Annahmen infrage gestellt und unter Zuhilfenahme weiterer Quellen ein anderes Bild ge-zeichnet. Dabei erweist sich insbesondere die Frage nach dem Zweck, welcher diesem Platz im Stadtgefüge zukam, als besonders ergiebig. In einem kurzen Rundblick sollen sodann skizzenartig die drei anderen genannten Plätze oder Freiflächen Zürichs vorgestellt werden. Der Lindenhof ist durch Abbruch der ehemaligen Pfalz, respektive Stadtburg zur Freifläche geworden und ist es durch ein frühes Bauverbot bis heute geblieben. Die Rathaus- oder Gemüsebrücke überspannt unmittelbar...

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Streets and Squares in Central European Towns – Work in Progress

Organiser: Martin MOSSER, Austria Section: Urban Archaeology Main topic: Streets, Roads and Squares. The section deals with the topic of streets, roads and squares in central places, towns and their surroundings over the course of time. Streets and roads are important links between places and are essential for supply and communication. Archaeologists have thoroughly studied and examined streets, forums and squares in the past few decades. New results and findings will be presented on occasion of the conference and participants will focus on three aspects within the section Urban Archaeology: Development, Function and Conversion / Continuity and Discontinuity / Urban Place – a public space free of buildings? Workshop: Streets and Squares in Central European Towns – Work in Progress The workshop deals with the same questions and topics as the Urban Archaeology Section but with an exclusive focus on Central European Towns. Short introductory talks (approx. 10′) requested followed by Working discussion The workshop aims at identifying supra-regional similarities and regional differences Questions and problems can be discussed interactively Maximum number of participants: 25 Language: German/English Section – Urban Archaeology Main topic: Streets, Roads and Squares. Die Sektion widmet sich epochenübergreifend dem Thema Straßen und Plätze in Zentralorten, Städten und ihrem Umland. Wege und Straßen sind wichtige verbindende Elemente zwischen Orten, die für Versorgungs- und Kommunikationsvorgänge unabdingbar sind. In den letzten Jahrzehnten sind Straßen, Foren und Plätze intensiv archäologisch untersucht worden. Daher sollen im Rahmen der Konferenz neue Erkenntnisse vorgestellt und drei Schwerpunkte innerhalb der Sektion Urban Archaeology behandelt werden: Development, Function and Conversion / Continuity and Discontinuity / Urban Place – Open Space? Workshop: Straßen und Plätze in mitteleuropäischen Städten – Work in Progress Der Workshop befasst sich mit denselben Fragestellungen wie die drei Themenblöcke in der Section Urban Archaeology  jedoch ausschließlich auf Mitteleuropa beschränkt. Impulsreferate mit einer Länge von ca. 10 min für das anschließende Arbeitsgespräch erwünscht. Ziel des Workshops sollte sein, anhand von Analogien überregionale Gemeinsamkeiten und regionale Unterschiede zu erkennen. Noch ungeklärte Fragen und Probleme können interaktiv diskutiert werden. Maximale Teilnehmerzahl: 25 Sprache:...

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Locating London – GIS Generated Research Resources

Peter RAUXLOH (Museum of London, United Kingdom)   Abstract: This paper will discuss the development of method to create a geo-referenced index of mid-eighteenth streets and places in London to spatially enable researcher’s data, , and an authoritative geo-referenced version of a prime contemporary map.  These resources will be made available The processing involves the creation of a connected network of streets, accompanied by a polygon layer of open areas and discrete buildings (parks, squares etc) from the first reliable mapping we have for the area, (c.1850). These datasets are then manipulated using GIS models to create a layer of connected, correctly abutted and clipped polygons. Geographic transformations are then performed on an existing street/place index of 1746 points, to convert their solely graphical pixel-based coordinates to those on the British National grid. This allows them to be plotted over the clipped polygon layer and thereby gives those polygons their identity.  The polygons are then iteratively clipped by the larger order polygon data sets created for the area; parishes, wards and counties, so as to derive a polygons segment for each combination. By groundling the method in the first truly reliable mapping available for the area, rather than the project’s target mapping (1746) we have a sound basis for the incorporation of other historic cartographic resources.  The process of creating street networks and polygon layers and their indexing for earlier or later maps of the area becomes one of editing, and extension/clipping rather than starting from scratch.  Various issues will be discussed such as the optimum digitization method given that some areas will have changed, the utility of connected network routing in the historic context and the need to concentrate on the geographically rather than pictorially accurate presentation of data. Keywords: georeferencing, historic maps,...

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RESTful Mapping: Web GIS & Eighteenth Century London

Jamie McLAUGHLIN (University of Sheffield, United Kingdom)   Outline: The paper comprises observations on best practice resulting from the ‘Locating London’s Past’ project. The project sought to create a web interface for conducting quantitative spatial analysis on several discreet eighteenth century data sets. Consequently the paper addresses issues such as complex web interface design, querying multiple sources of data via web APIs, and presenting historical maps using the Google Maps API. Abstract: The past two years have seen an explosion in the popularity and sophistication of web mapping. The stabilisation of client-side web development techniques, particularly AJAX, has allowed mapping applications within the browser to become increasingly mature and elaborate. Funded by JISC in the UK, the ‘Locating London’s Past’ project has developed an extensible approach to historical web mapping. The aim was to develop a browser interface to query and display multiple, disparate eighteenth century data sets on the same map. The finished system features RESTful APIs which supply data to an independent client-side interface based around the Google Maps API. Modern maps are augmented with John Rocque’s 1746 Map of London, as well as the first accurate modern OS map from the nineteenth century. In addition, queries can be formulated to return and display complex quantitative data, and basic data visualisations are available. Experiences from this project have prompted the team to propose several novel ideas about best practice in web mapping. In particular, an evaluation of the RESTful approach to data delivery and the problems encountered while designing flexible interfaces for requesting it. Indeed, as web mapping has become more refined and fully-featured, web sites which use it have begun to resemble desktop applications. This creates new and difficult sustainability and usability challenges which we seek to address. In tackling these issues, we hope to inspire others to approach their Humanities data spatially, and develop their tools for the web. The benefit of web mapping is that it makes such analysis not just possible, but also readily accessible. Keywords: Maps London AJAX REST...

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Now you see it, now you don’t

Menne C. KOSIAN (Cultural Heritage Agency the Netherlands) Outline: Integrating remote-sensing with historical data in changing environments. The aim of this paper is to discuss a methodology of combining historical survey data with modern (remote-sensing) survey data. Abstract: Few landscapes change more rapid than the marine. Sandbanks, channels and even complete coastlines can change dramatically overnight. This is a threat not only for modern mariners, our seafaring forefathers knew this problem also all too well. With modern techniques we can monitor these changes and adapt our maps on a regular basis. These techniques not only provide saver shipping, they can also be used to find the wreck of unfortunate former mariners. How can this method be used to predict where wrecks can be found. And, if a wreck is found, is it possible to preserve it? In order to get a full picture of possible wreck sites, we need to know what the underwater landscape was in various periods, and how it has changed over time. Historic Cartographical analysis can give and insight in the use and sometimes in the morphology of former landscapes. The problem with this is that it only provides qualitative information; i.e. descriptive data (map legends, interpretations, names or remarks). Modern remote-sensing devices give purely quantitative data. In order to model changes in a landscape overtime, the historical qualitative data should be in some way ‘quantified’ to make calculations possible. If the historical records provide quantitative data as well, they should somehow be extrapolated to be comparable with modern high resolution data. This ‘quantifying’ of data can also be used for modern qualitative maps, such as soil type maps or land use maps. This way historical data can be integrated with modern remote-sensing and survey techniques. In this lecture I will give an example of a method developed at the Cultural Heritage Agency in the Netherlands of integrating historical data with modern remote-sensing and survey techniques. The two main research area were the Wadden Sea and, on ‘dry land’, at the Overijsselse Vecht river. Keywords: Data integration, data analysis, applied historic cartography in...

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Localization of the French line of defense between Ypres and Comines (Belgium): an archeological and geographical contribution.

Hans BLANCHAERT (Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis, Brussels, Belgium)   Outline: The period of government of Louis XIV of France is characterized by a virtually continuous waging of war, from which the Southern Low Countries were also not spared. After the Treaty of Nijmegen, Louis XIV of France decides to change to a more defensive strategy. This means that, for instance, along the north-eastern border of France, a number of fortified cities and fortifications were connected by continuous lines of defense. Today, however, traces of that military past are no longer visible. The research focuses on one of these lines of defence, namely the one between Ypres and Komen. We’ve tried to reconstruct the route of the line of defense by a thorough examination of historical maps, with reference to different types of cartographic sources such as aerial photographs, cadastral maps and digital terrain models. Abstract: The applied methodology belonged to the relatively new study area of Historical GIS. As with most historical GIS, the use of historical maps is indispensable. Maps record former geographical information that is crucial to reconstruct past places. By incorporating those maps into a GIS, we overcome many of the restrictions that are associated with the paper maps, and the maps become almost dynamic. By georeferencing and vectorising the ancient maps, we can compare as many maps as we want. In addition they can be compared with other cartographic documents, such as aerial photographs, satellite images, digital elevation models and so on. The use of historical GIS proved its usefulness, since we were able to reconstruct the ancient line of defense in detail. Moreover, we managed to find spots in the landscape that still refer to this line: relicts that were forgotten since the line fell into ruin. The use of Historical GIS itself is quite new in Belgium, especially when it’s been used to trace material relicts in the landscape. The results of the research, in addition, putted more insights in the precise location of the line of defense, as well as in its functionality. Keywords: Historical GIS, Lines of defence, post-medieval...

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