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Assessment of the conservation state of masonry structures in monumental buildings by theIntegrated use of non-destructive unltrasonic techniques and mineral analyses.

Silvana FAIS(1,2) / Paola LIGAS(1) / Marcella PALOMBA(3) (1University of Cagliari, Italy / 2Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per l’Ingegneria delle Georisorse (CI.NI.Geo), Roma, Italy / 3Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria del C.N.R. – Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Facoltà di Ingegneria, University di Cagliari, Italy) Abstract: Integrated in-situ Non-Destructive (ND) ultrasonic techniques and mineral analyses were carried out to assess the conservation state of masonry structures in a monumental building. In this experimental study, in situ measurements of ultrasonic longitudinal pulse velocity with different natural frequency (24-54 kHz) of the transducers were carried out to detect the elasto-mechanical conditions of the building materials. Ultrasonic measurements by surface or indirect transmission (transmitter and receiver along the same face of the investigated masonry wall) were performed using the “step by step” and refraction modalities. These different acquisition modalities were very effective both in detecting the shallow altered areas of the building materials (step by step modality) and in defining the thickness of the alteration (refraction modality). Based on the results of ultrasonic investigations, a sampling was planned in the critical sectors. Optical studies and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique were applied on several microsamples, collected from both mortar and building stones, to determine the mineral composition and intensity of alteration of the materials. The mortar shows three different piled up layers. From the most shallow to deep layers of the mortar, the mineralogy consists of main and accessory primary minerals, and newly-formed minerals. The primary minerals are calcite, quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, which occur in different proportion in each mortar level; gypsum and illite occur in different proportion in the different layers, as newly-formed minerals. The building stones are generally limestones, mainly composed by calcite and minor K-feldspar and quartz; gypsum and illite occur in traces. The analysis of the available mineralogical data shows that the most altered zones, independently from type of material, are generally characterized by the presence of gypsum and illite. Mortar and limestone blocks, where lower acoustic velocities were detected, represent the most altered materials. The integrated ultrasonic and mineral analyses show that the alteration phenomena mainly affect the mortar and the shallow part of the limestone blocks, generally waterlogged...

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Urban archaeology and the re-constitution of historical continuity. The case of Amasya, Turkey

Leyla ETYEMEZ / Guliz Bilgin ALTINOZ (Middle East Technical Technical University, Ankara, Turkey) Abstract: Towns with continuous inhabitation are the locus of the collective memory that has been generated by the formations, transformations and continuities in the urban form and use of space through history. Each culture in historical continuity, reshapes the urban topography in relation to the previous periods and their existing components. Thus, each time, a new urban space is created by defining a new integrity between former and latter elements of urban topography. However, mainly after the second half of the 20th century, this natural process of urban formation had been interrupted with the rapid urban development as well as the changes in technologies, tools and approaches of construction and planning . In most of the cases this resulted in the defragmentation and loss of different historical and archaeological layers that constitutes the collective memory and urban identity. Based on this theoretical framework, in this poster, the historical continuity and urban archaeology of Amasya – a multi-layered historic town in the Northern Anatolia which embraces edifices from Hittite, Roman, Seljukid and Ottoman and Turkish Republican periods – will be analyzed and assessed. Focusing mainly on the problems of the defragmentation and loss of the components of urban form and historical stratification, this poster aims at identifying the physical, visual, and natural constituents of the collective memory, while discussing the strategies to re-constitute the fragmented and lost elements of historical continuity. Keywords: historical continuity, collective memory,  multi-layered Anatolian towns,...

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Ir thermography and ultrasonic investigations in the cultural heritage field

G. DIANA (1,2) / S. FAIS (1, 3) (1University of Cagliari, Italy / 2Vetorix Engineering S.r.l., Marcon (VE), Italy and RixGamma S.r.l., Ravenna, Italy / 3Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per l’Ingegneria delle Georisorse (CI.NI.Geo), Roma, Italy) Abstract: Several investigation techniques have been implemented in the past years in Cultural Heritage diagnostics and the tendency has been to use non-destructive techniques as much as possible for an adequate assessment prior to any restoration. This paper presents a few cases regarding the application of non-destructive Infrared (IR) thermography and ultrasonic techniques in evaluating the conservation state of valuable finds and monumental structures. As is known IR thermography is one of the most widely used technology in Cultural Heritage diagnostics. Each material has a specific thermal response that is detectable by infrared measurements. The thermal response of each material can change according to many variables, such as thickness, integrity, conditions and possible presence of moisture or other materials of a different nature. Therefore with a thermographic investigation we can detect a large number of data that are fundamental for a precise diagnosis of the shallow parts of the investigated objects. Ultrasonic methods are very effective in detecting the elastic characteristics of the materials and thus their mechanical behaviour. They are non-destructive and effective both for site and laboratory tests, though it should be pointed out that ultrasonic data interpretation is extremely complex as elastic wave velocity heavily depends on moisture, heterogeneity, porosity and other physical properties of the materials. From our tests it appears that due to the peculiarities of the two above mentioned methods, their integrated application can be very useful. In fact, the IR thermography, which is highly productive is limited by its low probing depth, a problem that can be solved by coupling ultrasonic velocity measurement on the investigated objects. Keywords: Cultural heritage diagnostics, non-destructive testing, IR thermography, ultrasonic techniques, building...

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Sibiu: A missing link in the city’s memory

Emil CREANGA / Ruxandra NEMTEANU / Ileana BUDISTEANU / Darius COSTEA (University Spiru Haret, Bucharest, Romania) Abstract: Sibiu is the repository of medieval townscapes and architecture. Yet it is still indebted to the memory of the epoch when it was the Haupstadt Hermanstadt of the Siebenbuergen Province (1692-1790). From that time a number of vestiges are still buried waiting to be unearthed. So is the so-called  Barracks 90 near the Poarta Cisnadie that was demolished in the 1980s’. Diggings carried out in the 1990s unearthed the remnants of the Barracks 90 built presumably in the same period (1791-1807) as the Kempel Barracks in Zeughofplatz (being the only military building preserved to the present). The barracks comprised four wings around an inner courtyard and had three, respectively four levels (due to the southward sloping of the site). Of special interest are the vaults of various techniques covering the inner spaces. With the nearby vestiges of the Heltauertor and of the Vauban-type fortifications, the Barracks 90 would complete the image of the historic centre of Sibiu and might become a new structuring pole in the central area of the city. By innovative and creative approaches, architecture might reconcile the requirements of heritage conservation and contemporary use and create a venue of public forum for culture. Keywords: Barracks 90, Vauban-type ramparts, heritage conservation, innovative and creative...

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The Ianus Temple from Rosia Montana – epigraphy, architecture and space meaning (a 3D restoration project)

Radu Ciobanu (Institution: Muzeul National al Unirii ; Alba Iulia ; Romania) Abstract: One of the most bizarre cult edifices from roman Dacia was discovered during Alburnus Maior archaeological research project and had been dedicated to Ianus, a mysterious and astonishing god himself. A bizarre cult edifice because its plan is not regular like all the others we usually know and because its shape has been determinated by provisional needs after frequently ground slidings. It is a very interesting monument also because we know pretty well the origins and the background of its donors, probably an Illyrian family belonging to a certain Ansienses community well attested in its close neighbourhood. But above all the presence of this temple is closely connected to a rich symbolic space meaning as it has been placed at the crossroad of the paths reaching to the settlement, to the necropolis and to the mines nearby. As a threshold god, real or symbolic, Ianus was worshipped most of all because its great power to ease the passages from the real life (the settlement) to the after life (the necropolis), or from a miserable status like the one of the ordinary miners, to a prosperous status after some gold source findings to which they have dreamed of. The 3D restauration project covers all these investigation fields, proposing some interesting answers to the problems stressed already out here. 1) First of all the project explains how the original rectangular plan shape became an irregular trapezium with two opposite cellae on its short side corners. This almost bizzare plan is the result of some precipitated provisional refections executed after important ground slidings, attested not only here but in several spots of the investigated region, such as the so called Valea Nanului tempels for instance. 2) As a two faced god, as Ianus is already well known from the rich iconographical sources, we have here in Rosia Montana, the most original and unique architectural solution : a) two cellae exactly positioned on a east west direction, as the original Numa Pompillius Rome god’s statue was raised in the Argiletum temple and b) their entrances situated on the facade temenos,...

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Height data from archaeological investigations for the reconstruction of the subsoil

Valeria BOI /Federica LA MONACA / Milena STACCA (Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni archeologicii, Rome, Italy) Abstract: The basis for our test is formed by the solid conceptual and technical foundation provided by the S.I.T.A.R. project, carried out by the Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Roma (Serlorenzi and De Tommasi are offering a paper on the project in this venue). The investigations carried out by public offices as well as by private companies (including both non-destructive and destructive geophysical surveys, preventive excavations, planned investigations, etc.) that are archived in the S.I.T.A.R. databank produce huge amounts of elevation data with variable precision. These data consist of spot elevations derived from total station and GPS readings, and destructive geophysical investigations. Once verified, this elevation information leads to the gradual creation of an increasingly detailed reconstruction of the subsoil. The integration of this data with those gathered from cartographic vector bases, as well as data from historical maps, multi-temporal satellite images, Digital Elevation/Terrain Models, and preexisting geological and geomorphological research makes the system a fundamental source for the detailed diachronic reconstruction of the morphology of the territory. The multi-layered city of Rome is the perfect candidate for a historical and topographical analysis of settlement development in different time periods, both because of the density and complexity of its settlement layout, and because its expansion hastened the natural phenomena of erosion and filling. The poster, hence analyses the Esquiline neighborhood which currently retains the urban layout that was in place after Rome was declared the capital of Italy. This layout significantly altered the original morphology of the hill, which was originally characterized by variations in elevation. Because of this, the Esquiline is an ideal case with which to test the potential of this type of analysis. The above-mentioned analysis can be further refined and then applied not only to Rome, but also to other geo-archaeological contexts with multiple strata. Keywords: GIS, height data, Urban Archaeology and town plannig,...

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