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Studying Medieval Brick Building Techniques Cases: Holy Cross Church at Hattula and Häme Castle in Finland

Tanja RATILAINEN (University of Turku, Finland) Abstract: Two of the few medieval brick buildings still standing in Finland are the Häme Castle and the Holy Cross Church at Hattula, which are located 7 km from each other. They were the most impressive buildings in the region at the time and still offer great possibilities for the building archaeological research. The aim of the ongoing research is to study the brick building techniques of both the church and the castle and to compare these with each other. Questions asked are: How did the bricklayers proceed in their work? Was a single project conducted in a relatively short period of time? Is it possible to identify bricklayers? What is the relation between the two buildings? Building archaeological methods such as context analysis (Harris Matrix), and digital surveying methods such as rectified photographs (PhoToPlan, AutoCad), photogrammetry (iWitness) and laser scanning are being applied in co-operation with Muuritutkimus Ltd and docent Kari Uotila and the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing of the Aalto University. 3D technology is not only used to present the data collected, but also as an analytical tool to gain more information on the building process. Preliminary results: 1) the Wendish bond used in the exterior walls locates around the same level with the starting point of the vaults. This could indicate that the brick layers wanted to strengthen the walls due to the building of the vaults. 2) Regarding the scaffolding system, it was surprising to see that the interior put log holes were situated two courses higher than the exterior ones: the walls were built up at a slightly different pace or the bricklayer working inside preferred a longer distance between the put log levels. 3) Analysing the stretchers of the Flemish double-stretcher bond showed that the exceptions in the bonding are located near the corners, buttresses, openings and the gables. Keywords: Buildings archaeology, Middle ages,...

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Making it survive: Post-excavation conservation and re-integration of archaeological remains in urban areas, the case of Roman remains in Ankara

Özge MUTLU / Güliz Bilgin ALTINÖZ (Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey) Abstract: Towns with continuous inhabitation embrace the physical traces, both above and under the ground, inherited from different historical periods. These traces altogether constitute the contemporary urban form and identity. Therefore, archaeological researches and excavations in urban areas can be considered as important valorization tools. However, archaeological research and excavations must be supported by post-excavation process for the survival of the unearthed archaeological remains. This process covers not only the conservation of materials but also relevant studies for their presentation and integrated survival in the contemporary town. Based on the above-mentioned framework, this poster aims at focusing on the case of Ankara, which is a multi-layered city located in central Anatolia. Ankara has been continuously inhabited since the Paleolithic ages through the Phrygian, Galatian, Roman, Byzantine, Seljukid, Ottoman and Turkish Republican periods. Ankara had been the capital of various former civilizations and now as the capital of the Turkish Republic it still shows the physical traces of this continuous inhabitation. The Roman era has an important position within the town’s history, since, during their reign Ankara became the capital of the Galatian Province of the Roman Empire . A significant amount of monumental buildings had been built representing the glory of this period.  Hence, the Roman Baths, the Temple of August, the Roman Theatre and a part of the Roman Street (Cardo Maximus) are the major archaeological remains in the modern city of Ankara today. However, besides various conservation problems, there is also the issue of fragmentation and disintegration, because of which, these sites appear as isolated voids in today’s urban context. The poster presents the urban form of Roman Ankara within its complexity and its current situation, while focusing on the problem of the survival of Roman remains in today’s city. As part of our ongoing study, preliminary ideas for the conservation of these areas and strategies for their re-integration with the contemporary city are discussed. Keywords: urban archaeological sites, re-integration, post-excavation conservation, presentation,...

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Presenting the medieval heritage. The case of Tartu (Estonia) from a museum perspective

Arvi HAAK (Tartu City Museum, Tartu, Estonia) Abstract: Background: Tartu (Dorpat) was an important centre during the medieval period and a member of the Hanseatic League. Due to massive destruction during the later periods (most notably during the Northern War in 1708), there are only a few objects of medieval origin still visible. The question how to present the medieval heritage, which has become an important part of the image of the city, is addressed. Objectives: to give an overview of the present attempts in the field to evaluate these, especially the possible reasons of attractiveness to reflect on the role of a city museum Methodology: Comparative analysis Data: Four main methods have been used: 1)Reconstructions and marking in situ. This has been used at the town wall, and at one of the main streets (Rüütli / Küüni). 2)Exhibitions of archaeological material. The main form of communication of the museum for the last 25 years 3)3D-reconstructions. A 3D-model for the use in the museum exhibition has been in use since 2000. 4)New enterprises attracting the public by presenting certain trades “in the old way”. The best examples include a historic barge, Jõmmu, operating at River Emajõgi (built and operated by a non-profit organisation), and a guild of St. Anthony of currently active handicraftspersons, who include some of the medieval techniques in their activities. Aims and conclusions As the museum is currently generating ideas and searching funding for a new conception of exhibition for town history, the current attempts to present the medieval period need to be reflected. Two approaches aimed at reaching the public: “Less static” museum (temporary exhibitions outside the museum building, guided tours where museum specialist use their expertise to explain the recent reconstructions, etc.) A more modern permanent exhibition (with usage of 3D and hands-on activities) Keywords: museum, heritage, presentation, public...

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Cultural Heritage Research, Analysis and Conservation Methodologies for the Historic Structures in Pakistan

Saima GULZAR / Muhammad NAWAZ CHAUDHRY / Jean-Pierre BURG (University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan) Abstract: Pakistan possess rich cultural heritage represented by a wide variety of standing monuments and archaeological sites nearly in all parts of the country. Built Heritage is the valuable resource as well as the reservoir of cultural heritage through which a society can relate its present to the past and can establish its future. The acknowledgment of built heritage in our region is much more acute and different from those in other parts of the world. As a result much of our past has been lost. The ignorance and negligence is at the state as well as at public level. The present age of technological advancements, globalization and information technology has now brought awareness about this subject. The main objective for this research was the scientific examination of the heritage materials based on advanced technologies to formulate the conservation and restoration methodologies within the local context. The selected site of Shahdara complex is the masterpiece of Mughal architecture in the subcontinent that comprises of three large beautifully landscaped tombs with ancillary historic structures. The diagnostic study is a three stage process which ends up with the laboratory analysis on state of the art instruments to co-generate the ancient materials’ composition/ technologies with their modern interpretations. The interpretations of results clearly depict the difference in composition and properties for two different sets of heritage materials; one being the originally used at construction time and the other used later repairs. The materials used for the restorations/ repairs of the historic structures during some past years are not found compatible with the original ones therefore they are still in deteriorated conditions. The expected outcomes of the research were the characterization of materials and study the interaction of the materials with the surrounding environment with the impacts of environmental factors. Keywords: Historic Materials, Scinetific Examination, Advanced...

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SITAR: a Web-GIs for managing archeological data in cultural heritage conservation and town planning

Petra GRINGMUTH / Stefania PICCIOLA / Simone RUGGERI (Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici, Rome, Italy) Abstract: The S.I.T.A.R. geospatial databank is a project of the Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Roma that draws on the talents of a team consisting of archaeologists, topographers, and computer experts. S.I.T.A.R. uses an RDBMS architecture to record the archeological data that enter the data base directly, analytically and without interpretation.The logic of the system is designed to organize, within one single databank, data deriving from bibliographic and archival research, as well as data from the entirety of the various territorial investigations (including remote sensing, boreholes, geophysical surveys, preventive excavations, etc.).The system is structured on three logical levels of detail which enable data deriving from a given number of corresponding conceptual categories to be archived and also allow very heterogeneous types of data sets to be organized (these aspects will be shown in detail on the poster through the use of illustrations). The cognitive and analytical path works either bottom-up or top-down, and has as its primary goal the description of any given archaeological context.In order to acquire and use the geo-topographical information, an optimal procedure for the digitization of archive materials has been developed. This consists of successive steps of rasterizing, georeferencing within the cartographic system shared by the other offices that deal with town planning, vectorizing and entry into the databank. This procedure produces an archaeological GeoDatabase that can be used both internally by the Soprintendenza and externally through sharing and exchange with other offices and universities. Keywords: SITAR; webGis; Urban Archaeology and city...

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The Old Cadastral Maps from Ingelheim as a Data Source for Archaeology

Matylda GIERSZEWSKA / Piotr NOSZCZYNSKI (Forschungsstelle Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim, Germany) Abstract: The Palatium in Ingelheim (Germany) is located in the eastern part of the current municipal area of this city, in the so-called Saalgebiet. The first excavation in this palace was carried out at the beginning of the 20th century. After that, archaeological research was resumed twice, in 1960 and 1993.The study area of this project includes, in addition to the Carolingian Palace, the expansion area from the Staufen-period with the surrounding remnants of the fortification. The main objective of this work is a presentation and comparative analysis of the cartographical sources for this area. This includes old cadastral maps and two other maps from the 17th century, namely Engelhart’s and the Marksburg plan. The secondary aim of this project is to generate information which would be useful in the pre- and post-excavation phase.The application of the Geographical Information System also plays a crucial role in this investigation. The poster focuses on the different georeferencing methods of the input sources: 1th – 3th polynomial, spline and adjust. The discrepancy between these methods and a critical view at the results will also be discussed. Equally important is the accuracy of these processes. The distortion grids will also be illustrated as an additional method for a comparison of the old maps and the present sources. The exactness of the methods will be presented with the root mean square error. The whole process is carried out with the use of the ArcGIS 9.2 program. As the result of this work, a few examples of the georeference adaptation in the pre- and post-excavation phase will be demonstrated. Keywords: GIS, Georeference, Cadastral Map,...

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