Museen der Stadt Wien – Stadtarchäologie

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Introduction to the session

Lighting, as a topic of theoretical, methodological, and practical endeavors crosses multiple fields and disciplines. Although it has been a neglected element in the interpretation of built environments, and consequently of humans’ experience and perception, a renewed interest, especially in the last decade, has made light a key component in heritage discussions. This session focuses on the cross-section between these two broad fields, namely heritage and lighting, in theoretical, methodological and technical applications, such museum designs, heritage sites’ development and archaeological interpretations. The aim of this session is to discuss how illumination affects our perception and appreciation of heritage and plays a major role in our understanding of its past and current spatial, temporal, aesthetic and cultural aspects. The theme of lighting in archaeology and cultural heritage has several different aspects that are of central interest: Simulation and reconstruction of lighting conditions of different time periods of heritage sitesCurrent research and practices on the state-of-the-art of digital tools and methods to simulate lighting situations of the different time periods of heritage sites through industry-academia collaboration is directly related to how we visualize and represent heritage to the broad public. The advancement of hardware and software, especially in the fields of photorealistic rendering, physical realism and supercomputing, has enabled in the last two decades the digital simulation and analysis of natural and artificial lighting in archaeological and heritage sites. A main challenge in the field of lighting simulation is that computer applications have not been developed to take into account variables that existed in the past, thus experts have to face several challenges that hinder research in the field. For example, the reflectance properties of materials used in building construction are unknown, while lighting fuel properties, i.e. intensity, color, distribution, cannot be simulated using western standards and modern values. Or light sources that were used in the past like gas lamps or torches do not have available photometries in lighting software and experimental lab work for the creation of a dataset with such information are necessary to enable the computational simulation of past environments.Mapping of current state-of-the-arts contemporary lighting techniques and strategies for heritage Another important aspect that influences our...

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Archiving by Analogization !?

Reiner GÖLDNER(Archaeological Heritage Office Saxony, Germany ) Keywords: digitalization, analogization, archaeological documentation, archiving We love digitization because we live in a digital world. Information technologies (IT) help us to tackle complex affairs like never before. Bookshelves, photo albums, worldwide maps, excavation documentation available at about 100 grams of IT, as is intelligent interpretation of handwriting as well as voice and face recognition. No problem. Archaeology too benefits greatly from such digital methods.But contemplating sustainability, preservation and things that remain, the chances for digitized objects are not that good. Digital life is short and it takes much effort to archive digital content and especially digital functionality. Often it is too expensive. Often there is no spare capacity for the preparation and curation of archive material. So mountains of digital data grow and grow, waiting to be excavated by future digital archaeologists.But contemplating cognition, creativity and our real world interaction, bits and bytes are usually not helpful, we need analogue Information. We read analogue texts, study analogue images and listen to analogue sounds. Scientific reasoning will continue to be a non-digital method (even though artificial intelligence seems to expand into refrigerators and washing machines). So digitization needs analogization (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. Digitization needs Analogization (© R. Goeldner) Archaeologists, especially, are familiar with lots of analogue things that survived thousands of years (without any curation effort). Some archivists also try to preserve digital information in an analogue form (hardcopy), maybe on/in LE paper, PET microfilm or ceramic tiles. The major advantage is, these archive materials are directly readable (recognizable), without any help of IT.So one may hit on the idea of omitting all the IT. Wouldn’t it be cheaper to draw excavation plans on paper than digitize it first and print it out last? Wouldn’t it be more authentic to draw a plan directly by hand then to trust hidden data exchange of bits and bytes? This short presentation will offer some provocative ideas on digital archiving that are well suitable to be discussed by interested participants. ReferencesR. Göldner: Archivierungsmethoden. In: Ratgeber zur Archivierung digitaler Daten, pp. 11-14. (online)MOM – Memory of...

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