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Archiving by Analogization !?

Reiner GÖLDNER(Archaeological Heritage Office Saxony, Germany ) Keywords: digitalization, analogization, archaeological documentation, archiving We love digitization because we live in a digital world. Information technologies (IT) help us to tackle complex affairs like never before. Bookshelves, photo albums, worldwide maps, excavation documentation available at about 100 grams of IT, as is intelligent interpretation of handwriting as well as voice and face recognition. No problem. Archaeology too benefits greatly from such digital methods.But contemplating sustainability, preservation and things that remain, the chances for digitized objects are not that good. Digital life is short and it takes much effort to archive digital content and especially digital functionality. Often it is too expensive. Often there is no spare capacity for the preparation and curation of archive material. So mountains of digital data grow and grow, waiting to be excavated by future digital archaeologists.But contemplating cognition, creativity and our real world interaction, bits and bytes are usually not helpful, we need analogue Information. We read analogue texts, study analogue images and listen to analogue sounds. Scientific reasoning will continue to be a non-digital method (even though artificial intelligence seems to expand into refrigerators and washing machines). So digitization needs analogization (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. Digitization needs Analogization (© R. Goeldner) Archaeologists, especially, are familiar with lots of analogue things that survived thousands of years (without any curation effort). Some archivists also try to preserve digital information in an analogue form (hardcopy), maybe on/in LE paper, PET microfilm or ceramic tiles. The major advantage is, these archive materials are directly readable (recognizable), without any help of IT.So one may hit on the idea of omitting all the IT. Wouldn’t it be cheaper to draw excavation plans on paper than digitize it first and print it out last? Wouldn’t it be more authentic to draw a plan directly by hand then to trust hidden data exchange of bits and bytes? This short presentation will offer some provocative ideas on digital archiving that are well suitable to be discussed by interested participants. ReferencesR. Göldner: Archivierungsmethoden. In: Ratgeber zur Archivierung digitaler Daten, pp. 11-14. (online)MOM – Memory of...

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Developing Tachy2GIS – Result and Perspective

Christian TRAPP1 | Reiner GÖLDNER2 (1Software Developer, Germany | 2Archaeological Heritage Office Saxony, Germany) Keywords: excavation, survey, total station, GIS The Hamburg Archaeological Museum maintains the development of basic components of “Tachy2GIS” (which is a real implementation of the “TachyGIS” idea). The existing prototype now is consolidated and extended due to basic requirements. By providing direct communication between a total station and the open source geographic information system QGIS, Tachy2GIS connects the well understood tool of the hand drawn map with the abilities of modern measuring equipment and geographic information systems. Drawing an excavation plan on a computer screen with a total station as stylus allows survey results to be reviewed and corrected in situ and immediately. Fig. 1. Digitization needs Analogization (© R. Goeldner) Geographic information systems are first and foremost map making software and Tachy2GIS is aimed at the archaeological community, which has special requirements towards said systems: Archaeological data is inherently very three-dimensional. There are almost always features on top of each other and also such that are much more vertical than flat. Both cannot be satisfactorily represented in a 2D top down view. Thus the next step is to add 3D interactive capabilities beyond the scope provided by QGIS in its current state.Right now we are researching how to achieve this, while keeping in mind that the typical laptop in the field will lack powerful graphics hardware. Progress is being made and we are looking forward to show off some implementation details. With this on the way, our eyes are set on extending the data acquisition side of Tachy2GIS to support a wider base of input hardware, which poses a new set of technological and financial challenges, as we need access to a variety of expensive devices which may use undocumented proprietary protocols.So the development is highly oriented on requirements of real archaeological excavations. It also follows principles of Free and Open Source Software to reduce overall expenses of the archaeological community. The short presentation will show results and perspectives of the Tachy2GIS developing project. ReferencesWorkshop „Digitale Grabungsdokumentation – objektiv und nachhaltig“, Dresden 2018-02J. Räther, C. Schubert: Werkstatt-Resümee TachyGISC. Trapp: Tachy2GIS – mit der Totalstation...

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First Experiences Using TachyGIS in Excavation Practice

Christof SCHUBERT | Reiner GÖLDNER(Archaeological Heritage Office Saxony, Germany) Keywords: excavation, survey, total station, GIS Abstract:The importance of GIS in archaeology has been constantly growing over the last years, not only for analysis and interpretation, but also for on-site documentation. In cooperation with the Archaeological Museum Hamburg, Tachy2GIS has been developed as a QGIS plugin to allow “live” measurements with Leica total stations in QGIS. A prototype of this plugin has been tested over several months on excavations at the opencast mines near Weißwasser (Saxony). During these tests, the team improved the excavation specific geodata structure and developed a specific user interface to optimally support excavation workflows. The presentation will outline the current state, first experiences made in excavation practice and give an outlook on the further development of this FOSS project. Fig. 1. Workshop Teaser “Digitale Grabungsdokumentation – objektiv und nachhaltig” (© R. Goeldner) ReferencesWorkshop „Digitale Grabungsdokumentation – objektiv und nachhaltig“, Dresden 2018-02C. Schubert: Digitale Grabungsdokumentation in Sachsen aus grabungstechnischer SichtJ. Räther, C. Schubert: Werkstatt-Resümee...

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Learning from the Past (Session introductory lecture)

Rowin J. VAN LANEN1, 2 | Menne C. KOSIAN1 | Jaap Evert ABRAHAMSE1 (1Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, landscape department, Amersfoort, The Netherlands | 2Wageningen University and Research, department of Soil Geography and Landscape (SGL), Wageningen, The Netherlands) How can we learn from the past? The importance of cultural heritage and GIScience for facing present-day challenges. Keywords: GIS, landscape dynamics, (historical) water management, climate-adaption strategies, political and societal influencing. Abstract:Throughout history people have had to adapt to changing environments. The forcing factors behind these changing environments are either of cultural or natural nature. Many of these factors are not unsimilar to the challenges we are facing today. Changes in climate, increased weather extremes, soil subsidence, water-regime changes, flooding, avulsions, soil conditions and demography have occurred throughout history and remain highly topical themes for modern-day societies. Knowledge on how people in the past have dealt with many of these challenges therefore can be not only an inspiration for modern-day planners and architects, but can also provide increased understanding and subsequent solutions for policy makers (e.g. politicians) and the general public. Consequently, cultural heritage plays a vital role in facing present-day and future challenges. In this introductory paper we will present a case study which shows how GIScience can help facing modern-day challenges. We will present a historic GIS developed at the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE). In this GIS, which is continuously being updated and expanded, data on the past natural and cultural landscape of the Netherlands (16th-19th centuries) are integrated with information on the present-day landscape. In the system data on historic city plans, palaeogeography and historical route networks are combined with information on historical-water systems. This allows us to use this GIS both for climate-adaptation strategies in both historical city centres (urban; local scale) and off site infrastructure such as water-management system (rural; regional scale). The GIS facilitates the integration of historical knowledge on urban and rural environments using land and water infrastructure. Such an integrated view is not only important from a scientific point of view, but also aids policymakers, technical engineers and planners and helps creating public awareness and support for cultural heritage...

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