(Muzeul National al Unirii, Alba Iulia, Romania)

The paper is dedicated to the cultural landscape of the Apuseni Mountains in Western Carpathians, an extremely rich area both in archaeological sites (prehistoric settlements , tumuli, a network of Roman roads and ancient gold/silver mines) and old rural architecture. The area is under threat due to future mining project, illegal deforrestation and non-controlled touristic development. . There is an urgent need to adopt a landscape approach to the management and sustainability of the archaeological resource in the rural landscape of Romania. From a cultural heritage perspective this approach is seen internationally as representing best practice. At a time of major landscape change in Romania it is essential to conceptualise the management of the archaeological resource in landscape terms. A regional approach is needed, both from the local and central authorities, NGO’s and other interested actors in the preservation of cultural and natural heritage.