Vera Kovalevskaya


The computer maps of distribution of archaeological artifacts and also statistical tables are only the first stage of complex analyses. Mass archeological materials mapping is especially indicative. First of all, the spatial analyses of such materials let us to see the areas of the maximal concentration (centers) and ways of movement of artifacts (in other words to discover the ancient trade routs, directions of cultural influence, tribes locations and migrations, and finally ethnic processes).br> With the help of ArcView 8.3 program and GG-MAG (the last program was worked out and given by Vavilov Institute of General Genetics RAS) the distribution of number of mass artifacts (beads, mirrors, amulets, belt garnitures, Hunnic polychromic goods), types of burial constructions, settlements of the 1st Millenium AD of Caucasus and mentioned artifacts from South-East and Central Europe were studied. The simple spatial analyses and continuous interpolation function were used for data handling.
We have made up more then 300 of analytical either diachronic or synchronous maps for every type of artifacts, maps of morphological and chronological combinations of them (complex maps), and the generalized maps revealing the factors lying at the bottom of the geographical spread of all the types of artifacts (synthetic maps or maps of the general components). The maps reflected the trade routs of Caucasus and Eastern Europe and migrations, which accompanied the Epoch of Great migrations and time of Khazar kaganat existing.
For comparison with archaeological maps the genogeographical maps of separate genes spreading and maps of principal components of Caucasian genes were made in Vavilov Institute of General Genetics. The results of the comparison gave the authentic illustration of influence of East European cultures of steppe region on the areas of foothills and mountains of Caucasus. It was demonstrated by close similarity of maps of 1st and 3rd principle components of Caucasian genes with maps of the main component of distribution of different types of settlements, cemeteries and number of artifacts. 3D GIS application?