(Center of Archaeology of Kyiv, Institute of Archaeology NAS, Ukraine)
Abstract: This article is about the medieval cemeteries of Kyiv, their topography, ethno-social composition of the buried people. Particular attention is devoted to the early cemeteries located in Podil district of Kiev (Kyiv)– the most populated area of the city at that time. Their characteristics are based on archaeological and paleoanthropological researches done in recent years.
On the territory of Kyiv about 1000 burial complexes 0f XI–XIII centuries were recorded archaeologically Most of the burial complex are located upon the Kyiv hills, surrounding the flat land of Podil district. However, since the middle of the XI century cemeteries appear on Podil too. First Podil cemeteries are located at the outskirts of the Podil district, which, was considered not a suitable place for settlement through swamps and a great risk of flood. For determination of the structure of ancient burial hem proposed term – “the peripheral cemeteries”.
In the first half of the XII century situation has changed – with a general stabilization of the tectonic situation in the region. Together with the rapid economic development of Kyiv the territory of the Podil district having been enlarged, new church buildings were constructed together with cemeteries. Early peripheral cemeteries in part disappeared due to the city expand, some of them continued to exist. Paleoanthropological analysis of 2007–2008 provided important information about the social status of people, who were buried at these cemeteries, identified the main occupation of the inhabitants of this ancient district. At the peripheral cemeteries members of the lowest social level of Kyiv were buried: port workers and personally dependent people. These people were not native residents of Kyiv, and got at the expense of the rural population of Kyiv land.
Keywords: population, Old Rus, cemetery, burial