H. Seblatnig / P. Ferschin
(Technische Universität Wien, Institut für Technik und Theorie, Vienna, Austria)
A standardized modern architecture is covering our world, with no consideration for local and climatic characteristics and the necessities of a country. The steel and glass scheme is not only exercised in metropolis and cities, this imposed aestheticsis guides architecture even in landscapes that should be better protected.
Apart from aesthetics – on which opinions may differ – is it the wrong strategy for the inhabitants of regions with difficult climatic conditions, as deserts, to construct with building material und building principles of the global standardized architecture. The building material presents itself in those areas so to speak in front of the door. The clay building is the most economic, most healthy and most adequate form of architecture for these climatic conditions.
In this way, throughout the centuries villages and cities were founded in many parts of Iran, most of which still exist today. The inhabitants of these areas created their circumstances of life according to the needs of their tribe, well considering the climatic and geographical characteristics.
This architecture stands out in using sensibly the available material and adapting excellently to nature. The two central problems of building in those regions are: protection against the sun and cooling through movement of the air. For this reason the houses were built in a way allowing the wind and the air to draw through. Appropriately maintained, the clay buildings can survive for centuries.
The citadel of Bam, existing for almost two thousand years until the earthquake of 2003, was an impressive example. How important it is for architects to consider climatic conditions is proven by the many negative examples of buildings and cities built without observing these guidelines. These reflections are an important part of the interdisciplinary architectonical practices “Dynamic simulation and visualization”.
Supported by the computer the students learn the basics of clay architecture on the example of the citadel of Bam. Their knowledge of the architectonic rules of archeological buildings are intensified through suitable didactic measures, which contributes to a clearer understanding of building traditions in different climatic regions. The students, as future architects, will have a better access to regional characteristics, for a more responsible approach in the area of planning und architecture.
keywords: architecture, computer